Remember to always bin any leftover food scraps first before attempting to wash your plate. IWSP is jointly funded by four European financiers and the Egyptian government with a volume of 295 million Euro for its first phase. The government initiated the reform in 1981 with two key elements: First, it merged the water investment agency GOPW and the sanitation investment agency GOSSD in a single new entity called NOPWASD. Disc faucets - A relatively current design, the disc faucet uses a central cylinder and two ceramic discs (one that moves and one that doesn't) to control water flow and temperature. In other governorates, such as in Daqahliya, resistance from the governors and from NOPWASD prevented the creation of a water company despite pressure by external donors. In 2006 the sector reforms were complemented by the creation of a regulatory agency, the Egyptian Water Regulatory Agency. The Ministry of Housing charged NOPWASD with the elaboration of a diagnostic study and recommendations for reforms. The study was presented to the Cabinet of Ministers in 1998. The Cabinet charged the Ministry of Housing with the elaboration of two documents: a decree on the reorganization of the water and wastewater sector, as well as a law on public utility concessions for water and wastewater.
Both were initially approved in principle by Cabinet in 2000. However, the water concession law was never passed. However, two new elements were added to the reforms: private sector participation and autonomous regulation. The private sector has also become involved in other functions beyond construction and consulting. The Ministry of Water Supply and Sanitation Facilities, created in 2012, took over its functions from the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities that had previously been in charge of the sector. The New Urban Communities Authority is responsible for water supply and sanitation investments in new communities, of which 22 with five million inhabitants have been built so far alongside 29 drinking water plants, 10,000 km of water pipelines, 7,000 km of sewer pipelines and 26 wastewater plants. However, this separation is not always clear-cut, since some companies in charge of operation also carry out investments. However, the World Bank under its Integrated Sanitation and Sewerage Infrastructure Project approved in 2008 (USD 320m in two phases) continues to channel investments through NOPWASD.
The governor of Beheira governorate, located next to Alexandria, created the first such company, the Beheira Water Company, by decree in 1981. With financing from the World Bank and France, facilities in the governorate were renovated and expanded. The existing 7 water and wastewater companies (2 in Cairo, 2 in Alexandria, and the 3 in the Nile Delta) as well as the existing 7 Public Economic Authorities were all transformed into Affiliated Companies of the Holding Company. The Water Companies in the Nile Delta. The five Affiliated Companies with the worst performance are, in the order listed, Aswan, Luxor, Qena (all located in Upper Egypt), Sinai and Marsa Matrouh (located in peripherical areas). The companies that cover several governorates include one for the Canal governorates (Suez, Port Said and Ismailia), and one for the Sinai (North and South Sinai governorates). The three water companies were less successful than expected. Two decades later only three such companies were created. Under the Improved Water and Sanitation Program (IWSP), approved in 2009, the water and sanitation companies will be responsible for carrying out investments, thus by-passing NOPWASD. After a visit by the UN Special Rapporteur for the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation in 2009, she noted limited transparency and accountability of the government to its citizens concerning water and sanitation.
A few years later, another government report observed that water and wastewater service providers were overstaffed with poorly qualified and poorly paid employees, that there was no system to evaluate staff performance, that billing and collection were poor and done manually, that there was no system to respond to citizen complaints, and no procedures for maintenance. However, the central government did not push hard for their creation. The creation of an "autonomous" regulatory agency for utilities was a standard recommendation made by donors for infrastructure sector reforms in developing countries at that time. Creation of the Holding Company. The Holding Company for Water and Wastewater plans to launch BOTs for seawater desalination on the Red Sea and the Sinai, together with the government's Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) unit that would provide a sovereign guarantee. North San Joaquin Water Conservation District has the authority to work on this but many other nearby water districts do not. The agency provides guidance in selecting conservation projects in the state. The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency is responsible for environmental affairs and the assessment and monitoring of water use. The Egyptian Water Regulatory Agency (EWRA), established in 2006, drainage somerset is in charge of the economic and technical regulation of utilities.